Open access
Open access
Powered by Google Translator Translator

Outpatient Nutrition Care

Cohort Study | Vegetarian diet linked to elevated hip fracture risk; BMI plays a partial role

9 Aug, 2023 | 15:16h | UTC

Risk of hip fracture in meat-eaters, pescatarians, and vegetarians: a prospective cohort study of 413,914 UK Biobank participants – BMC Medicine


RCT | Maternal egg intake in early neonatal period does not impact infant egg allergy risk

2 Aug, 2023 | 13:47h | UTC

Effect of Maternal Egg Intake During the Early Neonatal Period and Risk of Infant Egg Allergy at 12 Months Among Breastfeeding Mothers: A Randomized Clinical Trial – JAMA Network Open

See also: Visual Abstract


Review | Vegetarian and vegan diets: benefits and drawbacks

1 Aug, 2023 | 14:11h | UTC

Vegetarian and vegan diets: benefits and drawbacks – European Heart Journal (free for a limited period)


Commentary on Twitter


An ESPGHAN position paper on the diagnosis, management and prevention of cow’s milk allergy

31 Jul, 2023 | 14:28h | UTC

An ESPGHAN position paper on the diagnosis, management and prevention of cow’s milk allergy – Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition


Study | Childhood deaths in high-mortality settings mostly preventable; infection, malnutrition top causes

31 Jul, 2023 | 14:05h | UTC

Causes of Death Among Infants and Children in the Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance (CHAMPS) Network – JAMA Network Open

Invited Commentary: Need for a Structural Approach to Promote Child Survival – JAMA Network Open

News Release: Eight out of ten child deaths in low-income countries could be prevented – Barcelona Institute for Global Health


WHO updates guidelines on fats and carbohydrates

28 Jul, 2023 | 14:25h | UTC

News Release: WHO updates guidelines on fats and carbohydrates – World Health Organization


Saturated fatty acid and trans-fatty acid intake for adults and children: WHO guideline – World Health Organization

Total fat intake for the prevention of unhealthy weight gain in adults and children: WHO guideline – World Health Organization

Carbohydrate intake for adults and children: WHO guideline – World Health Organization


Commentary on Twitter (thread – click for more)


Cohort Study | Exploring the potential impact of artificial sweeteners on type 2 diabetes risk

28 Jul, 2023 | 14:07h | UTC

Artificial Sweeteners and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the Prospective NutriNet-Santé Cohort – Diabetes Care


AGA clinical practice update on evaluation and management of belching, abdominal bloating, and distention

27 Jul, 2023 | 13:04h | UTC

AGA Clinical Practice Update on Evaluation and Management of Belching, Abdominal Bloating, and Distention: Expert Review – Gastroenterology


Podcast | Obesity medicine, GLP1 agonists, weight loss management tools and tips

27 Jul, 2023 | 12:55h | UTC

#405 Obesity Medicine, GLP1 agonists, Weight Loss Management Tools and Tips – The Curbsiders


Podcast | Celiac disease pearls

27 Jul, 2023 | 12:53h | UTC

#89: Celiac Disease – The Great Mimicker – The Cribsiders


M-A | Vegetarian diets may modestly improve cardiometabolic profile in high-risk individuals

26 Jul, 2023 | 13:15h | UTC

Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and Cardiometabolic Risk in People With or at High Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis – JAMA Network Open

Commentary: M-A: Vegetarian diets may modestly improve cardiometabolic profile in high-risk individuals – HCP Live


RCT | Vitamin D supplementation shows no cognitive benefit in mild cognitive impairment intervention

25 Jul, 2023 | 14:00h | UTC

Effects of Exercise Alone or Combined With Cognitive Training and Vitamin D Supplementation to Improve Cognition in Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Clinical Trial – JAMA Network Open

Commentary: Exercise and Cognitive Training Slow Thinking Declines. Vitamin D? Not So Much – HealthDay


RCT | No statistically significant impact of vitamin D on major cardiovascular events

2ry analysis of a RCT | Vitamin D supplementation does not affect cognitive function in older adults

RCT: Oral Vitamin D supplementation (60.000 IU per month) did not reduce mortality in patients 60 years or older (unscreened individuals in Australia, many without insufficiency, average 30ng/mL). Exploratory analyses pointed towards an increased risk of death from cancer.

Randomized Trial: Vitamin D Supplements and Prevention of Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease

Meta-Analysis: Vitamin D Not Effective for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

Association between vitamin D supplementation and mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis – The BMJ

USPSTF Draft Statement: Insufficient evidence to recommend multivitamin supplements for the prevention of CVD or cancer. The statement also recommends against the use of beta-carotene (increases risk of CVD mortality and lung cancer) or vitamin E (clear evidence of no benefit)

Vitamin D, calcium, other vitamins, and supplements do not prevent cardiovascular diseases


Cohort Study | BMI of 25.0–29.9 not linked with higher mortality in 21st century U.S. adults

25 Jul, 2023 | 13:58h | UTC

Body mass index and all-cause mortality in a 21st century U.S. population: A National Health Interview Survey analysis – PLOS One

News Release: No increase in mortality for most overweight people, study finds – PLOS

Commentary: Expert reaction to study looking at BMI and all-cause mortality – Science Media Centre


RCT | MIND diet, a hybrid of Mediterranean and DASH, shows no superiority in preventing cognitive decline

21 Jul, 2023 | 13:38h | UTC

Trial of the MIND Diet for Prevention of Cognitive Decline in Older Persons – New England Journal of Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)


‘MIND diet,’ intended to prevent dementia, doesn’t offer significant brain benefit, trial suggests – Live Science

Revised Mediterranean Diet Shows No Significant Impact on Cognition, MRI Outcomes in Older Persons – Neurology Live


Commentary on Twitter


IARC, WHO agency, identifies aspartame as potentially carcinogenic but probably safe within established acceptable daily intake

18 Jul, 2023 | 13:58h | UTC

News Release: Aspartame hazard and risk assessment results released – World Health Organization


Expert reaction to IARC and JEFCA summary on aspartame – Science Media Centre

Does artificial sweetener aspartame really cause cancer? What the WHO listing means for your diet soft drink habit – The Conversation

Aspartame Hazard and Risk Assessment Results Released by IARC and JECFA – The ASCO Post


Single Arm Trial | Low-carbohydrate diet improves glycemic control in type 1 diabetes

13 Jul, 2023 | 13:04h | UTC

Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet in adults with type 1 diabetes management: A single arm non-randomised clinical trial – PLOS One


Management of Type 1 Diabetes With a Very Low–Carbohydrate Diet – Pediatrics (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Meta-analysis of randomized trials: patients adhering to a low carbohydrate diet for six months may experience remission of diabetes without adverse consequences

RCT | A calorie-unrestricted low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet resulted in short-term weight loss and better glycemic control.

Comparison of the Effectiveness of Low Carbohydrate Versus Low Fat Diets, in Type 2 Diabetes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials – Nutrients

Consensus Statement: Effect of carbohydrate-restricted diets and intermittent fasting on obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension management.

Effects of a 6-month, low-carbohydrate diet on glycaemic control, body composition, and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes: An open-label randomized controlled trial – Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism

Lower carbohydrate diets for adults with type 2 diabetes – British Journal of Nutrition

Low carbohydrate diet: Insights from a general practice service in patients with type 2 diabetes

Diabetes Canada Position Statement on Low-Carbohydrate Diets for Adults With Diabetes: A Rapid Review – Canadian Journal of Diabetes

Low Carbohydrate Diets for Diabetes: A Review of the Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines – Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health

Adapting diabetes medication for low carbohydrate management of type 2 diabetes: a practical guide – British Journal of General Practice


WHO Guideline | Policies to protect children from the harmful impact of food marketing

12 Jul, 2023 | 13:52h | UTC

Policies to protect children from the harmful impact of food marketing: WHO guideline – World Health Organization

News Release: WHO recommends stronger policies to protect children from the harmful impact of food marketing – World Health Organization

Commentary: WHO Launches New Guideline for Protecting Children from Unhealthy Food Marketing – Health Policy Watch


RCT | No significant difference in weight loss between intermittent fasting and calorie restriction

10 Jul, 2023 | 13:56h | UTC

Time-Restricted Eating Without Calorie Counting for Weight Loss in a Racially Diverse Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial – Annals of Internal Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

News Release: Intermittent fasting and traditional calorie counting shown to be about equal for weight loss – American College of Physicians

Commentary: Intermittent fasting and calorie counting about equal for weight loss – new study – The Conversation


RCT | Intermittent fasting plus early time-restricted eating vs. calorie restriction and standard care in adults at risk of type 2 DM

RCT | Time-restricted eating not more effective than daily calorie restriction for managing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Health effects of the time-restricted eating in adults with obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis – Frontiers in Nutrition

Time-restricted eating and exercise training improve HbA1c and body composition in women with overweight/obesity: A randomized controlled trial – Cell Metabolism

Effectiveness of Early Time-Restricted Eating for Weight Loss, Fat Loss, and Cardiometabolic Health in Adults With Obesity: A Randomized Clinical Trial – JAMA Internal Medicine

Effects of Intermittent Fasting in Human Compared to a Non-intervention Diet and Caloric Restriction: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials – Frontiers in Nutrition

Time-Restricted Eating: Integrating The What With The When – Advances in Nutrition

Calorie Restriction with or without Time-Restricted Eating in Weight Loss- New England Journal of Medicine

Intermittent Fasting and Obesity-Related Health Outcomes: An Umbrella Review of Meta-analyses of Randomized Clinical Trials – JAMA Network Open


Cohort Study | A diet high in fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, fish, and dairy linked with decreased mortality and CVD globally

10 Jul, 2023 | 13:39h | UTC

Diet, cardiovascular disease, and mortality in 80 countries – European Heart Journal

Editorial: Identifying nutritional priorities for global health: time for a more PURE focus on protective foods – European Heart Journal

News Release: Global diet study challenges advice to limit high-fat dairy foods – European Society of Cardiology


Commentary on Twitter


SR | Little to no impact of low glycemic index/glycemic load diets on weight loss in overweight or obese individuals

30 Jun, 2023 | 14:54h | UTC

Summary: This systematic review examined the impact of low glycaemic index or load (GI/GL) diets on weight loss in overweight or obese individuals, analyzing data from 10 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), with 1,210 participants. The main outcomes included changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), adverse events, health-related quality of life, and mortality. The study showed that low GI/GL diets probably result in little to no difference in body weight and BMI changes compared to higher GI/GL diets or other diets. The evidence suggests a lack of effect on all main outcomes and the possible positive influence on mood remains uncertain.

The studies included in this review had a small sample size with a moderate to very low certainty of evidence. This suggests more well-structured studies with larger sample sizes are needed for firmer conclusions. Limitations of this review included the risk of bias, as many of the studies did not adopt objective outcome measurements and some had a high degree of loss to follow-up. Furthermore, the researchers recommend that future studies focus on diverse demographic groups and include participants from low- and middle-income countries.

Article: Low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load diets for people with overweight or obesity – Cochrane Library

Summary: Do low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load diets help people with overweight or obesity to lose weight? – Cochrane Library


Phase 2 RCT | Triple-hormone-receptor (GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon) agonist Retatrutide substantially reduces body weight in obesity

28 Jun, 2023 | 13:23h | UTC

Summary: This Phase 2, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of Retatrutide, a triple-hormone-receptor agonist of GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon, for obesity treatment. The study recruited 338 adults, predominantly male, with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or higher, or 27 to 30 with at least one weight-related condition. Participants were administered subcutaneous Retatrutide at varying doses or a placebo, once weekly for 48 weeks.

The findings indicate a dose-dependent weight loss efficacy for Retatrutide. At 24 weeks, Retatrutide users exhibited a mean body weight decrease ranging from 7.2% (1 mg dose) to 17.5% (12 mg dose), compared to a 1.6% reduction in the placebo group. This effect was even more pronounced at 48 weeks, with changes ranging from 8.7% (1 mg dose) to a striking 24.2% (12 mg dose), contrasted with a 2.1% reduction in the placebo group. Adverse events, primarily gastrointestinal, were common with Retatrutide, reported by 73 to 94% of patients, and were dose-related.

Retatrutide demonstrated substantial body weight reduction in adults with obesity, with a side effects profile similar to existing GLP-1 and GIP–GLP-1 receptor agonists. These promising results warrant further investigation through a Phase 3 trial to further ascertain the safety and efficacy of Retatrutide in obesity treatment.

Article: Triple–Hormone-Receptor Agonist Retatrutide for Obesity — A Phase 2 Trial – New England Journal of Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)


Commentary on Twitter


Phase 2 RCT | Triple receptor agonist (GIP, GLP-1 and glucagon) Retatrutide shows promising results in obese patients with T2DM

28 Jun, 2023 | 13:21h | UTC

Summary: A Phase 2 Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT) was conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of Retatrutide, a glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), GLP-1, and glucagon receptor agonist, in patients with type 2 diabetes. The study involved 281 adults aged between 18 and 75 years with type 2 diabetes. These patients, with a mean HbA1c level of 8·3%, a mean BMI of 35·0 kg/m², and a mean body weight of 98·2 kg, were randomized to Retatrutide at various doses, Dulaglutide 1.5 mg, and placebo. Patients were treated with diet and exercise alone or a stable dose of metformin for at least three months prior to the study.

The primary outcomes revealed that at 24 weeks, participants who received the higher doses of Retatrutide demonstrated substantial improvements in HbA1c compared to the placebo group and those who received Dulaglutide. Specifically, for the highest-dose Retatrutide group (12 mg), HbA1c level was reduced by an average of 2.02%, which was significantly greater compared to a reduction of 0.01% in the placebo group and 1.41% in the Dulaglutide group.

Regarding body weight, at 36 weeks, participants receiving the different doses of Retatrutide showed a dose-dependent decrease: 3.19% for the 0.5 mg group, 7.92% for the 4 mg escalation group, 10.37% for the 4 mg group, 16.81% for the 8 mg slow escalation group, 16.34% for the 8 mg fast escalation group, and 16.94% for the 12 mg escalation group. This was significantly higher compared to the 3.00% weight loss in the placebo group and the 2.02% loss with 1.5 mg Dulaglutide.

Mild-to-moderate gastrointestinal adverse events were reported among 35% of the participants in the Retatrutide groups, similar to those in the Dulaglutide group, and no severe hypoglycemia or deaths were reported.

The implications of these findings suggest that Retatrutide provides clinically meaningful improvements in glycaemic control and bodyweight reduction with a safety profile consistent with GLP-1 receptor agonists and GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonists. Limitations of the study include limitation of this study is the relatively short duration of the trial and small sample size. Long-term effects and safety of Retatrutide remain to be evaluated in further studies.

Article: Retatrutide, a GIP, GLP-1 and glucagon receptor agonist, for people with type 2 diabetes: a randomised, double-blind, placebo and active-controlled, parallel-group, phase 2 trial conducted in the USA – The Lancet (link to abstract – $ for full-text)


Phase 2 RCT | Orforglipron, an oral GLP-1 receptor agonist, significantly reduces weight in adults with obesity

26 Jun, 2023 | 00:58h | UTC

Summary: The article reports a phase 2, randomized, double-blind trial investigating the efficacy of the GLP-1 receptor agonist, orforglipron, as an oral weight loss treatment for adults with obesity or overweight plus at least one weight-related condition. The study involved 272 participants, who were administered orforglipron at varying doses or a placebo over a 36-week period.

The key findings of the study indicated significant weight reduction in individuals who were administered orforglipron. At 26 weeks, weight changes in the orforglipron group ranged from -8.6% to -12.6% compared to -2.0% in the placebo group. At 36 weeks, these figures were -9.4% to -14.7% for the orforglipron group and -2.3% for the placebo group. Furthermore, 46-75% of orforglipron recipients experienced a weight reduction of at least 10% by week 36, compared to 9% in the placebo group.

Improvements were also observed in all prespecified weight-related and cardiometabolic measures among orforglipron users. However, the treatment was associated with some mild to moderate gastrointestinal side effects, leading to discontinuation in 10-17% of participants. The safety profile was in line with other GLP-1 receptor agonists. These findings suggest that orforglipron could potentially be an effective oral treatment for weight reduction in adults with obesity, though further research is needed to corroborate these results and assess long-term effects.

Article: Daily Oral GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Orforglipron for Adults with Obesity – New England Journal of Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)


Review | The role of diet and nutrition in the management of COPD

19 Jun, 2023 | 13:47h | UTC

The role of diet and nutrition in the management of COPD – European Respiratory Review


Pre-clinical Study | Taurine deficiency and aging, a correlation found in mice, monkeys, and worms

12 Jun, 2023 | 13:53h | UTC

Taurine deficiency as a driver of aging – Science

Invited Commentary: Taurine linked with healthy aging – Science

News Release: Taurine May Be a Key to Longer and Healthier Life – Columbia University


Commentary on Twitter


Stay Updated in Your Specialty

Telegram Channels

WhatsApp alerts 10-day free trial

No spam, just news.