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J&J COVID-19 Vaccine: FDA recommends booster shot for all adults aged 18 and older at least two months following initial vaccination with the single-shot vaccine.

17 Oct, 2021 | 21:32h | UTC

News release: Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Shot Unanimously Recommended for Emergency Use Authorization by U.S. FDA Advisory Committee

Commentaries:

FDA panel endorses booster shot for J&J COVID-19 vaccine – Associated Press

The Johnson & Johnson one-dose vaccine offers good protection now. A booster shot will maximize that, experts say – CNN

FDA advisers recommend J&J Covid-19 vaccine boosters, talk mix and match boosters – CNN

Related: [Press release – not published yet] J&J says booster shot at two months provided 75% protection against moderate to severe COVID-19 globally and 94% of such cases in the U.S.

 


[Preprint] Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections in 620,000 U.S. Veterans, February 1, 2021 to August 13, 2021 – “Vaccine protection declined by mid-August 2021, decreasing from 91.9% in March to 53.9%”.

17 Oct, 2021 | 21:29h | UTC

Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections in 620,000 U.S. Veterans, February 1, 2021 to August 13, 2021 – medRxiv

Related:

Observational study in Qatar showed the effectiveness of Pfizer vaccine against any SARS-CoV-2 infection dropped to 20% in months 5 through 7 after the second dose, but effectiveness against severe Covid-19 remained high.

Cohort study: Pfizer vaccine effectiveness against any infections declined from 88% during the first month after full vaccination to 47% after 5 months. Vaccine effectiveness against hospital admissions remained high; 87% within 1 month, and 88% at 5 months after full vaccination, with no significant waning.

Editorial | Covid-19 vaccination: evidence of waning immunity is overstated.

COVID vaccine immunity is waning — how much does that matter? – “As debates about booster shots heat up, what’s known about the duration of vaccine-based immunity is still evolving”.

COVID vaccine effects wane over time but still prevent death and severe illness.

Perspective | What we actually know about waning immunity.

Another study shows Pfizer mRNA vaccine immunity is reduced over time.

[Press release – not published yet] Study shows vaccine protection wanes over time, but vaccines still offer good protection against severe disease.

Studies: COVID vaccine protection waning against infection but not hospitalization.

 

Commentary on Twitter

 


What can masks do? Part 2: What makes for a good mask study — and why most fail.

17 Oct, 2021 | 21:25h | UTC

COMMENTARY: What can masks do? Part 2: What makes for a good mask study — and why most fail – CIDRAP

See also: COMMENTARY: What can masks do? Part 1: The science behind COVID-19 protection – CIDRAP

 


Management of Diabetes Mellitus in patients with CKD: Core Curriculum 2022.

17 Oct, 2021 | 21:23h | UTC

Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients With CKD: Core Curriculum 2022 – American Journal of Kidney Diseases

 


Viewpoint: Surgical overtreatment and shared decision-making—the limits of choice. – “Payment models further incentivize surgical intervention. Fee-for-service payment plans reward surgeons for operating, not for ensuring that surgery is right for a patient”.

17 Oct, 2021 | 21:17h | UTC

Surgical Overtreatment and Shared Decision-making—The Limits of Choice – JAMA Surgery (free for a limited period)

 

Commentary on Twitter

 


RCT: After third molar surgery, Ibuprofen doses above 400 mg did not significantly increase the analgesic effect, and Paracetamol 1000/codeine 60 mg was not more effective than ibuprofen 400 mg.

17 Oct, 2021 | 21:16h | UTC

Analgesic effect of oral ibuprofen 400, 600, and 800 mg; paracetamol 500 and 1000 mg; and paracetamol 1000 mg plus 60 mg codeine in acute postoperative pain: a single-dose, randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blind study – European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

 


M-A: Effectiveness and safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioid treatment for knee and hip osteoarthritis – although Etoricoxib 60 mg/day and diclofenac 150 mg/day seem to be most effective treatments, topical diclofenac 70-81 mg/day is safer and should be considered as first line treatment.

17 Oct, 2021 | 21:14h | UTC

Effectiveness and safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioid treatment for knee and hip osteoarthritis: network meta-analysis – The BMJ

News release: Topical pain-killers more effective, safer than opioids for knee osteoarthritis pain – St. Michael’s Hospital

Commentary: Network meta-analysis compares analgesic regimens for osteoarthritis – medwire News

 

Commentary on Twitter

 


Statins linked to reduced risk of death from COVID-19 in major population study – “Randomized studies will be needed to ascertain whether there is a causal relationship, note the researchers”.

15 Oct, 2021 | 02:47h | UTC

News release: Statins linked to reduced risk of death from COVID-19 in major population study – Karolinska Institutet

Original study: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and COVID-19 mortality in Stockholm, Sweden: A registry-based cohort study – PLOS Medicine

Commentaries:

Expert reaction to study looking at statins and risk of death from COVID-19 – Science Media Centre

People taking statins less likely to die from Covid, study suggests – The Guardian

 


Editorial: Covid-19 treatments and vaccines must be evaluated in pregnancy.

15 Oct, 2021 | 02:41h | UTC

Covid-19 treatments and vaccines must be evaluated in pregnancy – The BMJ

Related:

Two observational studies suggest spontaneous abortion is not increased following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination during pregnancy.

Study shows high effectiveness of the Pfizer mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in pregnancy.

5 Crucial Things to Know About COVID-19 Vaccines and Pregnancy.

CDC Guidance: Pregnant people should be vaccinated against COVID-19.

ACOG and SMFM Recommend COVID-19 Vaccination for Pregnant Individuals – “ACOG encourages its members to enthusiastically recommend vaccination to their patients.”

Cohort study: Pfizer/BioNTech COVID vaccine associated with 78% lower risk of Covid-19 in pregnancy.

 

Commentary on Twitter

 


Cohort study: Vaccinated pregnant patients had 90% lower risk of severe or critical Covid-19 compared with unvaccinated pregnant patients.

15 Oct, 2021 | 02:38h | UTC

Maternal Outcomes After Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection in Vaccinated Compared With Unvaccinated Pregnant Patients – Obstetrics & Gynecology

Related:

Two observational studies suggest spontaneous abortion is not increased following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination during pregnancy.

Study shows high effectiveness of the Pfizer mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in pregnancy.

5 Crucial Things to Know About COVID-19 Vaccines and Pregnancy.

CDC Guidance: Pregnant people should be vaccinated against COVID-19.

ACOG and SMFM Recommend COVID-19 Vaccination for Pregnant Individuals – “ACOG encourages its members to enthusiastically recommend vaccination to their patients.”

Cohort study: Pfizer/BioNTech COVID vaccine associated with 78% lower risk of Covid-19 in pregnancy.

 

Commentary on Twitter (thread – click for more)

 


WHO Report: Tuberculosis deaths rise for the first time in more than a decade due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

15 Oct, 2021 | 02:30h | UTC

Tuberculosis deaths rise for the first time in more than a decade due to the COVID-19 pandemic – World Health Organization

Report: Global tuberculosis report 2021

Commentary: Tuberculosis deaths rise for 1st time in years, due to COVID – Associated Press

 

Commentary on Twitter (thread – click for more)

 


FDA issues food industry guidance for reduction of sodium in processed and packaged foods.

15 Oct, 2021 | 02:29h | UTC

News Release: To Improve Nutrition and Reduce the Burden of Disease, FDA Issues Food Industry Guidance for Voluntarily Reducing Sodium in Processed and Packaged Foods – U.S. Food & Drug Administration

Guidance for Industry: Voluntary Sodium Reduction Goals – U.S. Food & Drug Administration

Commentaries:

FDA Issues New Guidance on Sodium Targets for Food Industry – TCTMD

Reducing Sodium Intake in the US: Healthier Lives, Healthier Future – JAMA

FDA Reduces Recommended Salt Levels in Americans’ Food – HealthDay

FDA guidance to food industry aims to reduce sodium consumption – American Heart Association

New FDA guidance aims to drastically cut salt in food supply – NBC News

 


Former CDC director: Low sodium salt could save millions of lives.

15 Oct, 2021 | 02:27h | UTC

Former CDC director: Low sodium salt could save millions of lives – CNN

Related:

Is salt good for you after all? The evidence says no.

#ESCCongress – Cluster RCT: Among patients at increased risk for stroke, salt substitution (75% sodium chloride and 25% potassium chloride by mass) reduced the rates of stroke, major cardiovascular events, and death from any cause.

Systematic Review: Altered dietary salt intake for people with chronic kidney disease.

New WHO benchmarks help countries reduce salt intake and save lives.

RCT: Reduced-sodium added-potassium salt substitute reduces blood pressure in hypertensive patients

Potassium Enriched Salt Substitution Could Prevent a Large Number of Cardiovascular Deaths

Meta-Analysis: Effect of Reduction in Dietary Sodium on Blood Pressure Levels

Cluster Randomized Trial: Effect of Salt Substitution on Community-wide Blood Pressure and Hypertension Incidence

 


Systematic Review: “Formula milk trials have a high risk of bias, almost always report favorable conclusions, lack transparency, and selectively report findings”.

15 Oct, 2021 | 02:25h | UTC

News release: Formula milk trials are not reliable, warn researchers – Imperial College London

Original study: Conduct and reporting of formula milk trials: systematic review – The BMJ

 


Meta-analysis of cohort studies: High intake of fatty acid in nuts, seeds and plant oils linked to lower risk of death.

15 Oct, 2021 | 02:22h | UTC

News release: High intake of fatty acid in nuts, seeds and plant oils linked to lower risk of death – The BMJ

Original study: Dietary intake and biomarkers of alpha linolenic acid and risk of all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies – The BMJ

Commentaries:

Current evidence on dietary intakes of fatty acids and mortality – The BMJ

Expert reaction to systematic review and meta-analysis on consumption of dietary fatty acids (alpha linolenic acid) and risk of death – Science Media Centre

Related: Total dietary fat intake, fat quality, and health outcomes: A scoping review of systematic reviews of prospective studies.

 

Commentary on Twitter

 


[Preprint] In RCT with 29,949 participants, the Novavax vaccine demonstrated high overall efficacy (>90%) for the prevention of Covid-19, and all moderate-to-severe cases occurred in placebo recipients.

14 Oct, 2021 | 10:17h | UTC

Efficacy and Safety of NVX-CoV2373 in Adults in the United States and Mexico – medRxiv

Commentary: Novel vaccine demonstrates high efficacy for prevention of COVID-19 – News Medical

Related:

RCT: Novavax vaccine conferred 89.7% protection against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and 100% protection against hospitalizations or deaths.

Opinion | The mRNA vaccines are extraordinary, but Novavax is even better.

(Press release – not published yet) Novavax COVID-19 vaccine demonstrates 90% overall efficacy and 100% protection against moderate and severe disease.

RCT: Novavax vaccine is 49.4% effective against B.1.351 SARS-CoV-2 variant.

[Press release – not published yet] Novavax reports 96% efficacy against original strain of COVID-19, 86% efficacy against B.1.1.7 variant, and 55% efficacy against B1.351 variant

New COVID-19 vaccines: here’s how the promising Novavax and Johnson & Johnson jabs work

Covid-19: Novavax vaccine efficacy is 86% against UK variant and 60% against South African variant

 

Commentary on Twitter

 


Systematic Review: Short-term and long-term rates of postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

14 Oct, 2021 | 10:15h | UTC

Short-term and Long-term Rates of Postacute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Systematic Review – JAMA Network Open

Commentaries:

Most COVID-19 survivors have symptoms 6 months on, review finds – CIDRAP

Expert reaction to systematic review on rates of postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) – Science Media Centre

How many people get ‘long COVID’? More than half, researchers find – Penn State

Related:

WHO Consensus: A clinical case definition of post COVID-19 condition (Long Covid).

Characterizing long COVID: a living systematic review.

Long Covid – The illness narratives.

New guidelines to help doctors manage long COVID patients published.

M-A: More than 50 long-term effects of COVID-19. (several articles on the subject)

 

Commentary on Twitter

 


Podcast with Dr Walter Willett: CardioNutrition – Why are findings from prospective, epidemiologic cohort studies important in informing dietary recommendations?

14 Oct, 2021 | 09:49h | UTC

ACC CardiaCast: CardioNutrition – Why Are Findings From Prospective, Epidemiologic Cohort Studies Important In Informing Dietary Recommendations? – American College of Cardiology

 

Commentary on Twitter

 


Survey finds patients undergoing medical imaging procedures have overall limited knowledge about medical radiation.

14 Oct, 2021 | 09:46h | UTC

Patient Perceptions and Knowledge of Ionizing Radiation From Medical Imaging – JAMA Network Open

Invited commentary: It Is Time to Inform Patients of Medical Imaging Risks – JAMA Network Open

 


WHO advisers recommend 3rd COVID vaccine dose for highest-risk groups.

13 Oct, 2021 | 01:48h | UTC

WHO advisers recommend 3rd COVID vaccine dose for highest-risk groups – CIDRAP

See also: WHO advises additional COVID shot for immunocompromised people – Reuters

 


A primer on what we know about mixing and matching Covid vaccines.

13 Oct, 2021 | 01:44h | UTC

A primer on what we know about mixing and matching Covid vaccines – STAT

Related:

Real-world data shows increased reactogenicity in adults after heterologous compared to homologous prime-boost COVID-19 vaccination.

RCT: Safety and immunogenicity of heterologous vs. homologous prime-boost schedules with an adenoviral vectored and mRNA COVID-19 vaccine.

Another study shows increased immune response with heterologous Oxford-AstraZeneca/mRNA vaccination.

Heterologous Oxford–AstraZeneca and Moderna Vaccination induce increased levels of neutralizing antibody compared to 2 doses of Oxford–AstraZeneca.

Heterologous Oxford–AstraZeneca and BioNTech/Pfizer Vaccination induce increased levels of neutralizing antibody compared to 2 doses of Oxford–AstraZeneca.

[Preprint] Mixing Covid jabs has good immune response, study finds – “The Com-Cov trial looked at the efficacy of either two doses of Pfizer, two of AstraZeneca, or one of them followed by the other. All combinations worked well, priming the immune system”.

Phase 2 RCT: Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a Pfizer-BioNTech booster in patients that have received a single dose of AstraZeneca vaccine – “BNT162b2 (Pfizer) given as a second dose in individuals prime vaccinated with ChAdOx1-S (AstraZeneca) induced a robust immune response, with an acceptable and manageable reactogenicity profile”.

Lab study shows heterologous AstraZeneca/Pfizer vaccination produces strong immune response against SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant.

Lab study shows a heterologous AstraZeneca + Pfizer immunization strategy provides stronger immunogenicity against Covid compared to homologous AZ + AZ or Pfizer + Pfizer strategies.

RCT: Mixing 2 different Covid vaccines is associated with increased risk of side effects.

 


USPSTF draft statement revises previous guidance and now recommends against initiating low-dose aspirin use for the primary prevention of CVD in adults aged 60 years or older.

13 Oct, 2021 | 01:36h | UTC

USPSTF Draft Recommendation Statement: Aspirin Use to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease – U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

Commentaries:

Advice shifting on aspirin use for preventing heart attacks – Associated Press

Taking aspirin to prevent heart attack may cause more harm than good, task force says – NPR

Related Randomized Trials:

Randomized Trial: Aspirin for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

Randomized Trial: Effects of Aspirin for Primary Prevention in Persons with Diabetes

Randomized Trial: Effect of Aspirin on All-Cause Mortality in the Healthy Elderly

Related Meta-Analysis:

Meta-Analysis: Association of Aspirin Use for Primary Prevention with Cardiovascular Events and Bleeding Events

Meta-Analysis: Efficacy and Safety of Aspirin for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events

Aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis with a particular focus on subgroups – BMC Medicine

Related Opinions:

Aspirin for Primary Prevention: Is This the End of the Road?

Evidence evolving on aspirin as prevention – ACP Internist

 

Commentary on Twitter

 


ACR Announces New Appropriateness Criteria for Diagnostic Exams.

13 Oct, 2021 | 01:32h | UTC

American College of Radiology Announces New Appropriateness Criteria – Medical Device News Magazine

New Guidance: ACR Appropriateness Criteria

 


RCT: Laser treatment not better than sham treatment on symptom severity in women with postmenopausal vaginal symptoms.

13 Oct, 2021 | 01:30h | UTC

Effect of Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser vs Sham Treatment on Symptom Severity in Women With Postmenopausal Vaginal Symptoms: A Randomized Clinical Trial – JAMA (free for a limited period)

News release: This laser is supposed to rejuvenate vaginal tissue. But scientists say it’s no better than a placebo – University of New South Wales

Editorial: Time for a “Pause” on the Use of Vaginal Laser (free for a limited period)

Author Interview: Effect of Carbon Dioxide Laser vs Sham Therapy on Women With Postmenopausal Vaginal Symptoms

Commentary: Vagina lasering for postmenopausal women ‘may be placebo’ – The Guardian

 

Commentary on Twitter

 


M-A: Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation is associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation.

13 Oct, 2021 | 01:27h | UTC

Effect of Long-Term Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation in Randomized Controlled Trials of Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis – Circulation (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Related:

M-A: Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation increases the risk of atrial fibrillation in patients with lipid disorders.

More data suggests no cardiovascular benefit from Omega-3 supplementation – secondary analysis of STRENGHT trial did not show an association between achieved Omega-3 fatty acid levels and major adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with high cardiovascular risk.

RCT: Omega-3 supplements do not reduce cardiovascular events in elderly patients after myocardial infarction

#AHA20 – Randomized trial: High-dose Omega-3 fatty acids did not reduce the risk of cardiac events in patients at high cardiovascular risk

Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials: Little Benefit from Omega-3 Intake to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk

 

Commentary on Twitter

 


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