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Pediatrics – Infectious Diseases

[Preprint] COVID infection severity in children under 5 years old before and after Omicron emergence in the US.

21 Jan, 2022 | 10:04h | UTC

COVID infection severity in children under 5 years old before and after Omicron emergence in the US – medRxiv

Commentary: SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infections milder in children compared to Delta – News Medical

 


Editorial | Long covid in children and adolescents – “Risk appears low, but many questions remain”.

21 Jan, 2022 | 09:58h | UTC

Long covid in children and adolescents – The BMJ

Related:

M-A: Persistent symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 infection among children and young people – “Higher study quality was associated with lower prevalence of all symptoms, except loss of smell and cognitive symptoms”.

Review: Long COVID symptoms in children rarely persist beyond three months.

Cohort study: long term follow-up showed most patients with post–COVID-19 Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children had good outcomes with no significant medium- or long-term sequelae.

Long COVID: the physical and mental health of children and non-hospitalized young people after SARS-CoV-2 infection – one in seven children may still have symptoms 15 weeks after infection.

Do kids get long COVID? And how often? A pediatrician looks at the data – Children also get Long Covid, but much less often than adults.

Illness duration and symptom profile in symptomatic school-aged children tested for SARS-CoV-2 – “Only 25 (1.8%) of 1379 children experienced symptoms for at least 56 days.”

Long-term Symptoms After SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children and Adolescents – “This study found a low prevalence of symptoms compatible with long COVID in a randomly selected cohort of children assessed 6 months after serologic testing”.

Study shows low incidence of post-acute COVID-19 symptoms (“Long Covid”) in children after mild disease

Cohort study: Risk factors for long covid in previously hospitalized children.

M-A: More than 50 long-term effects of COVID-19.

 

Commentary on Twitter

 


Heart function recovered quickly in children with COVID-19-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C).

20 Jan, 2022 | 09:26h | UTC

News Release: Heart function recovered quickly in children with COVID-19-related MIS-C condition – American Heart Association

Original Study: Longitudinal Assessment of Cardiac Outcomes of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children Associated With COVID‐19 Infections – Journal of the American Heart Association

 


Systematic Review: School closures during social lockdown and mental health, health behaviors, and well-being among children and adolescents during the first Covid-19 wave.

19 Jan, 2022 | 09:00h | UTC

School Closures During Social Lockdown and Mental Health, Health Behaviors, and Well-being Among Children and Adolescents During the First COVID-19 Wave: A Systematic Review – JAMA Pediatrics

Editorial: Pandemic Recovery for Children—Beyond Reopening Schools – JAMA Pediatrics

Commentary: More Behavioral Issues Reported in Children When School Is Virtual – Psychiatric News Alert

Related:

M-A: Child and youth mental health problems have doubled during COVID-19.

Adolescents’ recreational screen time doubled during pandemic, affecting mental health.

More data on the harmful effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of adolescents.

COVID has caused ‘mass trauma,’ worsening mental health globally.

COVID’s mental-health toll: how scientists are tracking a surge in depression

CDC Report: Mental health-related emergency department visits among children aged under 18 years raised during the COVID-19 Pandemic

WHO: COVID-19 disrupting mental health services in most countries

 

Commentary on Twitter (thread – click for more)

 


RCT: In children with community-acquired pneumonia, outpatient antibiotic therapy for 5 days resulted in similar clinical response rates compared to a standard 10-day strategy.

19 Jan, 2022 | 08:39h | UTC

Short- vs Standard-Course Outpatient Antibiotic Therapy for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children: The SCOUT-CAP Randomized Clinical Trial – JAMA Pediatrics (free for a limited period)

Commentaries:

Trial finds 5 days of antibiotics superior to 10 for kids with pneumonia – CIDRAP

Shorter antibiotics treatment is better for young children with outpatient pneumonia – Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Related:

ACP Guidance: Appropriate Use of Short-Course Antibiotics in Common Infections

RCT: 5 days of high-dose amoxicillin therapy noninferior to 10 days for the treatment of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia

RCT: Among children with community-acquired pneumonia discharged within 48 hours from the ED or hospital, lower-dose outpatient oral amoxicillin was noninferior to a higher dose, and a 3-day duration course was noninferior to 7 days.

Treatment of urinary tract infections in infants <2 Months: A Living Systematic Review – short and long duration of parenteral antibiotics were associated with a similar risk of UTI recurrence.

RCT: 7 days of antibiotic therapy as good as 14 days for afebrile men with urinary tract infection.

Randomized Trial: Seven vs. Fourteen Days of Antibiotic Therapy for Uncomplicated Gram-negative Bacteremia

Meta-Analysis: Efficacy of Short-Course Antibiotic Treatments for Community-Acquired Pneumonia

 


Measures implemented in the school setting to contain the COVID‐19 pandemic: a rapid review.

18 Jan, 2022 | 09:54h | UTC

Measures implemented in the school setting to contain the COVID‐19 pandemic: a rapid review – Cochrane Library

News Release: Measures implemented in the school setting to contain the COVID-19 pandemic: a rapid review – Cochrane Library

 


Review: Treatment of multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) in children and adolescents.

18 Jan, 2022 | 09:46h | UTC

Treatment of MIS-C in Children and Adolescents – Current Pediatrics Reports

See also: Clinical practice guidelines in multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) related to COVID-19: a critical review and recommendations – World Journal of Pediatrics

Related:

Review of 4,470 cases of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children in the US.

WHO issues guidelines on the treatment of children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19.

An Update on Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children Related to SARS-CoV-2.

Ten Things to Know About Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C).

Cohort study: long term follow-up showed most patients with post–COVID-19 Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children had good outcomes with no significant medium- or long-term sequelae.

Kawasaki Disease and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children: An Overview and Comparison.

Cohort study: Six month follow-up of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children.

Cohort study: Among children with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C) associated with Covid-19, there was no evidence that recovery differed after primary treatment with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) alone, IVIG plus glucocorticoids, or glucocorticoids alone.

Cohort study: Among children with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C) associated with Covid-19, initial treatment with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) plus glucocorticoids was associated with a lower risk of new or persistent cardiovascular dysfunction than IVIG alone.

Cohort study showed that the incidence of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) was 316 persons per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections in persons younger than 21 years. The incidence was higher among Black, Hispanic or Latino, and Asian or Pacific Islander persons.

Cohort study showed good recovery for most children 6 months after Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome (PIMS-TS) associated with SARS-CoV-2.

Epidemiology of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children: A Step Closer to Understanding Who, Where, and When

Neurologic involvement in children and adolescents with COVID-19 or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome

Clinical Update: Acute covid-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children

Differences in characteristics and outcomes of children and adolescents with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) vs. severe acute COVID-19

Cutaneous findings in SARS-CoV-2-associated Multisystem Inflammatory Disease in Children (MIS-C)

SR: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children related to COVID-19

Observational study: The combination of Immunoglobulins + Methylprednisolone was associated with a better course of fever compared to Immunoglobulins alone in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in children

ACR Guidance for pediatric patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with SARS‐CoV‐2

New systematic review of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children Associated With SARS-CoV-2 infection summarizes the clinical features, management, and outcomes of the disease, showing favorable outcomes for the majority of children

 


Hospital admissions from childhood common infections were largely reduced in England during the pandemic due to control measures for Covid-19.

17 Jan, 2022 | 00:37h | UTC

Indirect effects of the covid-19 pandemic on childhood infection in England: population based observational study – The BMJ

Editorial: Covid-19 control measures and common paediatric infections – The BMJ

News Release: Dramatic fall in hospital admissions for child infections during first year of covid-19 pandemic – BMJ

 


5 years later, researchers assess how children exposed to Zika are developing.

14 Jan, 2022 | 07:53h | UTC

5 years later, researchers assess how children exposed to Zika are developing – NPR

Related: Study: Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in Children with in Utero Zika Virus Exposure Without Congenital Zika Syndrome

 


Observational study in adolescents showed the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine had an overall effectiveness of 94% against hospitalization and 98% against critical Covid-19.

13 Jan, 2022 | 09:00h | UTC

Effectiveness of BNT162b2 Vaccine against Critical Covid-19 in Adolescents – New England Journal of Medicine

Editorial: Sparing of Severe Covid-19 in Vaccinated Adolescents – New England Journal of Medicine

 


International study identifies predictors of severe outcomes in children with COVID-19.

12 Jan, 2022 | 09:05h | UTC

News Release: International study identifies predictors of severe outcomes in children with COVID-19 – University of Calgary

Original Study: Outcomes of SARS-CoV-2–Positive Youths Tested in Emergency Departments: The Global PERN–COVID-19 Study – JAMA Network Open

 


CDC Report: COVID-19 vaccine safety in children aged 5–11 Years.

9 Jan, 2022 | 01:09h | UTC

COVID-19 Vaccine Safety in Children Aged 5–11 Years — United States, November 3–December 19, 2021 – CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Commentary: COVID-19 vaccine appears safe in children aged 5–11 Years – News Medical

 

Commentary on Twitter

 


New CDC Guidance shortens isolation and quarantine period for Covid-19; patients that tested positive should isolate for 5 days and, if asymptomatic after this period, can leave isolation if they can continue to mask for 5 days to minimize the risk of infecting others.

9 Jan, 2022 | 01:13h | UTC

CDC Updates and Shortens Recommended Isolation and Quarantine Period for General Population – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

See also: Quarantine and Isolation – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Commentaries:

Facing criticism, CDC updates Covid-19 isolation recommendations with guidance on testing – CNN

CDC posts rationale for shorter isolation, quarantine – Associated Press

Covid-19: CDC shortens isolation period as US cases hit record high – The BMJ

Shortened CDC COVID isolation guide draws sharply mixed reviews – CIDRAP

New CDC isolation guidelines raise concerns among health experts – NPR

CDC Reduces Recommended Isolation Time for People With COVID-19 – HealthDay

COVID isolation and quarantine period for general population shortened by CDC – News Medical

CDC shortens recommended Covid-19 isolation and quarantine time – CNN

CDC cuts the recommended isolation and quarantine periods for coronavirus infections – NPR

US officials recommend shorter COVID isolation, quarantine – Associated Press

See new recommendations from other countries:

France cuts isolation times and plans crackdown on unvaccinated amid record surge in Covid cases – CNN

Covid: Self-isolation cut from 10 days to seven with negative tests – BBC

 


CDC Study: A test to stay strategy (allowing close contacts with masked COVID-19 exposures to remain in school) was very efficacious in preventing further school spread and allowed children to stay in the classroom as an alternative to home quarantine.

9 Jan, 2022 | 01:07h | UTC

Evaluation of Test to Stay Strategy on Secondary and Tertiary Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in K–12 Schools — Lake County, Illinois, August 9–October 29, 2021 – CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Related CDC Study: Evaluation of a Test to Stay Strategy in Transitional Kindergarten Through Grade 12 Schools — Los Angeles County, California, August 16–October 31, 2021 – CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Related CDC Guidance:

What You Should Know About COVID-19 Testing in Schools – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Science Brief: Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in K-12 Schools and Early Care and Education Programs – Updated – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Commentary: ‘Test-to-stay’ works to keep students in school safely, CDC director says – CNN

Related:

Instead of quarantine for Covid-exposed students, some schools are trying test-to-stay.

Cluster RCT: Daily contact testing of school-based contacts was non-inferior to self-isolation for control of COVID-19 transmission.

Kids are losing school days to quarantines. Here’s a way to keep them in classrooms – “Test-to-stay could dramatically reduce close contact quarantines”.

Opinion | Data from routine Covid testing can help schools stay open this year.

 

Commentary on Twitter

 


[Preprint] Risk of myocarditis following sequential COVID-19 vaccinations by age and sex.

9 Jan, 2022 | 01:05h | UTC

Risk of myocarditis following sequential COVID-19 vaccinations by age and sex – medRxiv

Commentary: An evaluation of the association between COVID vaccination and myocarditis in 42 million people aged 13 or older – News Medical

Note: this study is an updated analysis of a recent study published in Nature Medicine; see below:

Risks of myocarditis, pericarditis, and cardiac arrhythmias associated with COVID-19 vaccination vs. SARS-CoV-2 infection.

 


New AAP Guidance recommends routine HIV screening to all youth 15 years or older.

8 Jan, 2022 | 23:13h | UTC

Adolescents and Young Adults: The Pediatrician’s Role in HIV Testing and Pre- and Postexposure HIV Prophylaxis – Pediatrics

Commentary: Pediatricians Can Play Key Role in HIV Testing, Prophylaxis – HealthDay

 


RCT: Low-cost, easy to take antiretroviral treatment based on Dolutegravir as first- or second-Line therapy found to be non-inferior to standard care for treating HIV-1 infection in children.

8 Jan, 2022 | 23:07h | UTC

Dolutegravir as First- or Second-Line Treatment for HIV-1 Infection in Children – New England Journal of Medicine (link to abstract – $ for full-text)

Commentary: Easy-to-take medicine better at suppressing HIV in children – University College London

 

Commentaries on Twitter

 


NICE Guideline | Fever in under 5s: assessment and initial management.

17 Dec, 2021 | 08:44h | UTC

Fever in under 5s: assessment and initial management – National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

Related: AAP Guideline: Evaluation and management of well-appearing febrile infants 8 to 60 days old.

 


Sepsis in children: state-of-the-art treatment.

16 Dec, 2021 | 08:56h | UTC

Sepsis in children: state-of-the-art treatment – Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease

 


Antibiotics in critically ill children—a narrative review on different aspects of a rational approach.

16 Dec, 2021 | 08:53h | UTC

Antibiotics in critically ill children—a narrative review on different aspects of a rational approach – Pediatric Research

 


Risks of myocarditis, pericarditis, and cardiac arrhythmias associated with COVID-19 vaccination vs. SARS-CoV-2 infection.

15 Dec, 2021 | 08:43h | UTC

Risks of myocarditis, pericarditis, and cardiac arrhythmias associated with COVID-19 vaccination or SARS-CoV-2 infection – Nature Medicine

News release: COVID-19 infection, more likely than vaccines, to cause rare cardiovascular complications – University of Oxford

 

Commentaries on Twitter

 


Systematic Review: Antibiotics for adults and children with sore throats.

10 Dec, 2021 | 10:02h | UTC

Summary: Antibiotics for adults and children with sore throats – Cochrane Library

Original Research: Antibiotics for treatment of sore throat in children and adults – Cochrane Library

 


[Preprint] Risk of Hospitalization, severe disease, and mortality due to COVID-19 in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Germany – “overall hospitalization rate associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection was 35.9 per 10,000 children, ICU admission rate was 1.7 per 10,000 and case fatality was 0.09 per 10,000”.

8 Dec, 2021 | 10:18h | UTC

Risk of Hospitalization, severe disease, and mortality due to COVID-19 and PIMS-TS in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Germany – medRxiv

Related:

Editorial: COVID-19 vaccines for children – “Although it is true that most children experience asymptomatic or mild disease, some will get quite sick, and a small number will die. It’s why children are vaccinated against influenza, meningitis, chickenpox, and hepatitis”.

Review: Should children under 12 years of age be vaccinated against COVID-19?

Deaths in children and young people in England after SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first pandemic year – “In total, 99.995% of children and young people with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test survived”.

 


Case series with 139 adolescents and young adults with suspected myocarditis following mRNA vaccination showed most cases had a mild clinical course and rapid resolution of symptoms.

7 Dec, 2021 | 10:19h | UTC

Clinically Suspected Myocarditis Temporally Related to COVID-19 Vaccination in Adolescents and Young Adults – Circulation

News Release: Young people recover quickly from rare myocarditis side effect of COVID-19 vaccine – American Heart Association

 


Review of 4,470 cases of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children in the US.

7 Dec, 2021 | 10:08h | UTC

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children—United States, February 2020–July 2021 – Clinical Infectious Diseases

Related:

WHO issues guidelines on the treatment of children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19.

An Update on Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children Related to SARS-CoV-2.

Ten Things to Know About Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C).

Cohort study: long term follow-up showed most patients with post–COVID-19 Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children had good outcomes with no significant medium- or long-term sequelae.

Kawasaki Disease and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children: An Overview and Comparison.

Cohort study: Six month follow-up of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children.

Cohort study: Among children with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C) associated with Covid-19, there was no evidence that recovery differed after primary treatment with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) alone, IVIG plus glucocorticoids, or glucocorticoids alone.

Cohort study: Among children with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C) associated with Covid-19, initial treatment with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) plus glucocorticoids was associated with a lower risk of new or persistent cardiovascular dysfunction than IVIG alone.

Cohort study showed that the incidence of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) was 316 persons per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections in persons younger than 21 years. The incidence was higher among Black, Hispanic or Latino, and Asian or Pacific Islander persons.

Cohort study showed good recovery for most children 6 months after Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome (PIMS-TS) associated with SARS-CoV-2.

Epidemiology of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children: A Step Closer to Understanding Who, Where, and When

Neurologic involvement in children and adolescents with COVID-19 or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome

Clinical Update: Acute covid-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children

Differences in characteristics and outcomes of children and adolescents with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) vs. severe acute COVID-19

Cutaneous findings in SARS-CoV-2-associated Multisystem Inflammatory Disease in Children (MIS-C)

SR: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children related to COVID-19

Observational study: The combination of Immunoglobulins + Methylprednisolone was associated with a better course of fever compared to Immunoglobulins alone in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in children

ACR Guidance for pediatric patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with SARS‐CoV‐2

New systematic review of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children Associated With SARS-CoV-2 infection summarizes the clinical features, management, and outcomes of the disease, showing favorable outcomes for the majority of children

 


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