ESPEN practical guideline: Clinical nutrition in surgery – “Preoperative fasting from midnight is unnecessary in most patients. Patients undergoing surgery, who are considered to have no specific risk of aspiration, shall drink clear fluids until 2 h before anesthesia. Solids shall be allowed until 6 h before anesthesia.”
Editorial: The rationale for the recommendations of the European Pediatric Fasting Guideline – “the authors of the 2021 ESAIC pediatric guideline have found reasons to recommend reductions to the minimum fasting times for infant formula to 4 h, for breast milk to 3 h and for clear fluids to 1 h”.
Practice Guidelines for Preoperative Fasting and the Use of Pharmacologic Agents to Reduce the Risk of Pulmonary Aspiration: Application to Healthy Patients Undergoing Elective Procedures: An Updated Report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Preoperative Fasting and the Use of Pharmacologic Agents to Reduce the Risk of Pulmonary Aspiration